24 Jan

Fruit, Vegetable and Fat Intake: RESULTS

Characteristics of the Study Sample

The 2,172 African-American participants in Project DIRECT were predominately female (62%) and had a mean age of 46 years (see Table 1). About 38% of participants were currently married, and the majority were employed (61%). Most participants had completed high school (>70%) and about one-third had yearly incomes >$25,000.

Most participants (81%) rated their overall health as being excellent, very good or good. However, about two-thirds of participants were overweight or obese. About one-third reported that they were attempting to lose weight, and 21% had a doctor recommend that they lose weight. About 11% indicated that they had diabetes. Many participants (63%) reported that they had engaged in some type of physical activity or exercise, such as running, calisthenics, golf, gardening or walking, in the past month.

Table 1. Selected Characteristics among 2,172 African Americans in Project DIRECT at Baseline

Characteristics

N=2,172

Sociodemographic VariablesAge (years)

Sex

Female

46.3 ± 0.59 (18-97)1,391 (62.1)
Education<High school

High school

Some college

College graduate or higher

628 (26.3) 764 (36.6) 498 (23.7) 282 (13.4)
Marital status MarriedSeparated, divorced, or widowed Never been married 836 (38.1) 748 (30.5) 588 (31.4)
Employment statusEmployed

Retired

Unemployed

Homemaker

1,241 (61.3) 690 (26.3) 166 (8.9) 75 (3.5)
Yearly income0 <$ 10,000 $10,000-$24,999 $25,000-$49,999 >$50,000 556 (25.4) 741 (38.3) 489 (26.5) 171 (9.8)
Health VariablesHealth status

Excellent

Very good

Good

Fair

Poor

296 (16.3) 532 (27.2) 813 (37.4) 403 (15.1) 128 (4.0)
BMI (kg/m2)b Optimal/underweight Overweight ObeseExtremely obese 470 (33.4) 552 (36.4) 439 (25.4) 84 (4.8)
Doctor recommend weight loss0 Yes 571 (20.8)
Diabetes Yes 617 (10.8)
Behavior VariablesAttempting Yes 819 (36.2)
Physical activity level (past month) Active 1,305 (62.8)
All results presented as n (%) or mean ± standard error. BMI: body mass index; a N=1,957, b N=1,545, c N=2,170, d N=2,130

Fruit Vegetable and Fat Intake

Dietary patterns, according to sociodemographic, health and behavior variables, are summarized in Table 2 (fruit and vegetable intake) and Table 3 (fat intake). Mean total daily fruit and vegetable intake was estimated at about four servings per day. Daily fruit and vegetable intake was significantly greater in older individuals and women. Participants who had some college or who were college graduates reported significantly more daily vegetable intake than those with less than a high-school education. Similarly, participants who earned $10,000 or more per year reported significantly more daily vegetable intake than those earning <$ 10,000. cheap cialis canadian pharmacy

Table 2. Dietary Fruit and Vegetable Patterns by Sociodemographic and Health Variables in Project DIRECT at Baseline (N=2,172)

Daily Fruit (Servings0) Daily Vegetable (Servings0) Daily Fruit & Vegetable6 (Servings0)
Sociodemographic Variables
Total 0.7 ± 0.02 1.9 ± 0 .05 3.9 ± 0.05
Age (years)50+

<50

(Ref) 0.8 ± 0.03 0.6 ± 0.03** 1.9 ± 0.06 1.8 ± 0.05 4.3 ± 0.06 3.7 ± 0.07**
SexMale

Female

(Ref) 0.6 ± 0.03 0.7 ± 0.03* 1.8 ± 0.06 2.0 ± 0.05** 4.2 ± 0.07 3.7 ± 0.06**
Education<High school

High school

Some college

College graduate or higher

(Ref) 0.7 ± 0.05 0.6 ± 0.03 0.6 ± 0.03 0.8 ± 0.05 1.7   ± 0.061.8   ± 0.05

1.9   ± 0.06*

2.5 ±0.13**

3.7 ± 0.09 3.7 ± 0.07 4.1 ±0.08* 4.6 ± 1.00**
Yearly Income0 <$ 10,000 $10,000-$24,999 $25,00C^$49,999 >$50,000 (Ref) 0.6 ± 0.04 0.7 ± 0.04 0.6 ± 0.04 0.7 ± 0.06 1.7 ± 0.05 1.9 ± 0.06* 1.9 ± 0.08* 2.1 ±0.12** 3.6 ± 0.08 3.9 ± 0.07* 4.0 ± 0.09* 4.4 ±0.13**
Health VariablesHealth status

Poor

Fair

Good

Very good

Excellent

(Ref) 0.7 ±0.13 0.7 ± 0.05 0.6 ± 0.03 0.7 ± 0.04 0.6 ± 0.04 1.8 ±0.13 1.8 ± 0.09 1.8 ± 0.05* 2.0 ± 0.06 2.0 ± 0.07 3.6 ±0.19 3.8 ±0.12 3.8 ± 0.074.0    ± 0.08

4.1    ± 1.00*

BMI (kg/m2)d Optimal/underweight Overweight ObeseExtremely obese (Ref) 0.6 ± 0.03 0.6 ± 0.04 0.7 ± 0.04* 0.7 ±0.10 1.7 ± 0.06 1.9 ± 0.05* 1.9 ± 0.07* 2.2 ±0.19* 3.7    ± 0.084.1 ±0.09**

3.8    ± 0.09

3.6 ±0.19

Doctor requested weight losseYes

No

(Ref) 0.8 ± 0.05 0.6 ± 0.02* 2.1±0.10 1.8±0.04* 4.0±1.00 3.9±0.05
DiabetesYesNo (Ref) 0.8 ± 0.03 0.6 ± 0.02** 2.0 ± 0.06 1.9 ± 0.05 4.1 ±0.08 3.9 ± 0.05
Behavior VariablesAttempting weight loss

Yes

No

(Ref) 0.8 ± 0.04 0.6 ± 0.02** 2.1 ±0.07 1.8 ± 0.04** 4.0±0.07 3.9±0.06
Physical activity level (past month) Sedentary                             (Ref) Active 0.6 ± 0.03 0.7 ± 0.35** 1.7 ± 0.05 2.0 ± 0.06** 3.6 ± 0.07 4.1 ±0.05**
Ail results presented as means ± standard error; (Ref) indicates the reference group to which all groups are compared using t-tests; BMI: body mass index; a USDA Food Pyramid definitions of servings; b Estimated using prediction equations for daily nutrient intake based on fruit and vegetable intake screener scores and sex23;c N=1,957; d N=1,545; e N=2,170;f N=2,130; * p<0.05; ** dO.001

Overall, the evaluation of fruit and vegetable intake stratified by health status showed no significant patterns. However, participants who were overweight or obese, who were attempting weight loss or who had a doctor recommend that they lose weight reported significantly more daily fruit and vegetable intake than participants who did not experience these concerns. Those who had been physically active in the past month had a significantly higher intake of fruits and vegetables than those who had not been physically active (p<0.001). buy levitra uk

Table 3. Dietary Fat Patterns by Sociodemographic and Health Variables in Project DIRECT at Baseline (N=2,172)

Daily Fat Intake0 Total Fat (grams)   Saturated Fat (grams)
Sociodemographic Variables
Total (mean) 25th percentile 50th percentile 75th percentile 85.9 ± 0.60 70.3 83.1 96.7 24.2 ± 0.21 17.3 23.5 28.8
Age (years)50+

<50

(Ref) 76.9 ± 0.61 91.7 ±0 .78** 20.7 ± 0.26 26.4 ± 0.28**
SexMale

Female

(Ref) 83.5 ± 0.87 87.3 ± 0.72** 28.0 ± 0.32 21.8 ±0.26**
Education<HS

HS

Some college

College graduate or higher

(Ref) 85.8 ± 0.97 88.3 ± 0.92 86.0 ± 1.00 79.0 ± 1.08** 24.1 ±0.39 24.9 ± 0.35 24.4 ± 0.35 21.6 ±0.47**
Yearly lncomeb <$ 10,000 $10,000-$24,999 $25,000-$49,999 >$50,000 (Ref) 87.4 ± 1.0986.4   ±0.91

85.3 ± 1.00

83.5    ± 1.60*

23.7 ± 0.4224.4    ± 0.34

24.5    ± 0.36

24.0 ± 0.67

Health VariablesHealth status

Poor

Fair

Good

Very good

Excellent

(Ref) 78.0 ± 2.63 83.8 ± 1.20 85.7 ±0.81* 87.2 ± 1.01* 87.7 ± 1.17* 20.4 ± 1.01 22.9 ± 0.45 23.9 ± 0.29 24.7 ± 0.39** 25.7 ± 0.44**
BMI (kg/m2)c Optimal/underweight Overweight ObeseExtremely obese (Ref) 88.8 ± 1.1484.7    ± 1.11*

86.1 ±0.99

88.8    ± 2.23

25.6 ± 0.4124.3    ± 0.42*

23.4    ± 0.38**

22.6 ± 0.82**

Doctor recommend weight /ossdYes

No

(Ref) 81.9 ±0.86 86.9 ± 0.67** 21.4 ±0.30 24.9 ± 0.25**
YesNo (Ref) 76.4 ± 0.74 87.0 ± 0.66** 20.6 ± 0.33 24.6 ± 0.24**
Behavior VariablesAttempting weight losse

Yes

No

(Ref) 83.7 ± 0.89 87.2 ± 0.69* 22.4 ± 0.34 25.2 ± 0.26**
Physical activity level (past month)Sedentary

Active

(Ref) 86.8 ± 0.89 85.3 ± 0.67 23.9 ± 0.31 24.3 ± 0.26
All results presented as means ± standard error; (Ref) indicates the reference group to which all groups are compared using t-tests; ° Estimated using prediction equations for daily nutrient intake based on fat intake screener scores and sex23; b N=1,957, c N=1,545, d N=2,170, e N=2,130; * p<0.05, ** pO.001

Total daily fat and saturated fat intake in this population were estimated at 86 g and 24 g, respectively; the 75th percentile of intake was 96.7 and 28.8, respectively. Older participants reported significantly less daily total and saturated fat intake than did younger participants (p<0.001). While women reported a higher daily total fat intake than did men (pO.OOl), they reported a significantly lower intake from saturated fat (pO.OOl). Daily total fat and saturated fat intake were significantly lower in participants who had at least a college degree than in those with less than a high-school education. Participants with yearly incomes of $50,000 and higher reported less total fat intake than did those with yearly incomes <$ 10,000. suhagra

Participants with better health status (excellent, very good) reported more total and saturated fat intake than did those with poor health status (all p<0.05). Overweight or obese participants, those trying to lose weight, those who had a doctor recommend that they lose weight and those who had diabetes, tended to report less daily fat intake than did those who did not experience these concerns. Physically active and sedentary individuals reported similar daily total and saturated fat intake.

Categories: Diet
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