Archive for the 'Osteoporosis' Category

25 Dec

Vitamin D and its metabolites in the pathogenesis and treatment of osteoporosis: Conclusions

D and calcium are important for normal skeletal growth and for maintaining the mechanical and structural integrity of the skeleton. Even though secure inferences from randomized controlled trials on the prevention of osteoporotic fracture with calcium and vitamin D supplementation are very limited, expe- cially in women within the first years of menopause, these com­pounds […]

24 Dec

Vitamin D and its metabolites in the pathogenesis and treatment of osteoporosis: Treatment with active vitamin D metabolites part 2

In addition to its role in postmenopausal and involutional osteoporosis, calcitriol was used in the treatment of secondary os­teoporosis, especially corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis and post-transplantation bone loss. Corticosteroids result in impaired gastrointestinal absorption of calcium and increased urinary calcium loss leading to sec­ondary hyperparathyroidism with enhanced bone resorption, as well as having direct inhibitory effects on […]

23 Dec

Vitamin D and its metabolites in the pathogenesis and treatment of osteoporosis: Treatment with active vitamin D metabolites

The 1 a-hydroxylated forms of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxychole- calciferol or calcitriol, and 1 a-hydroxy-cholecalciferol or alfacal- cidiol, have been proposed as possible therapies for osteo­porosis. Both compounds strongly stimulate the in­testinal calcium absorption, and the response is dose-depen­dent (Fig. 5). This leads to a suppression of PTH secretion and a decrease in bone turnover. Over […]

22 Dec

Vitamin D and its metabolites in the pathogenesis and treatment of osteoporosis: Vitamin D and its metabolites in the treatment of osteoporosis part 2

Moreover, both vitamin D alone (vitamin D2 300,000 IU single injection or oral vitamin D3 800 IU/day) and vitamin D associated with calcium resulted in a small but significant improvement in BMD, suppressed parathyroid hormone, and reduced falls as compared to con­trols in a recent secondary prevention study. Even though most studies documented a positive […]

21 Dec

Vitamin D and its metabolites in the pathogenesis and treatment of osteoporosis: Vitamin D and its metabolites in the treatment of osteoporosis

Relatively small changes in vitamin D status may have signifi­cant effects on bone mass. This justifies the use of vitamin D and its active metabolites in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis, since vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency has been found to be frequent in the elderly as well as in post­menopausal women, particularly during […]

20 Dec

Vitamin D and its metabolites in the pathogenesis and treatment of osteoporosis: Calcium, vitamin D and osteoporosis

Calcium and vitamin D are recognized as essential nutrients throughout life for skeletal growth and maintenance of bone mass. Calcium is the prevalent mineral of bone and its absorption from the intestine depends on vitamin D. Convincing evidence has been given that dietary calcium intake is positively related to BMD in children and adolescents. In […]

19 Dec

Vitamin D and its metabolites in the pathogenesis and treatment of osteoporosis: Vitamin D and bone homeostasis

Vitamin D is important for bone, for its essential role in promot­ing intestinal calcium absorption and mineralization of bone matrix. The major source of vitamin D is the skin, where it is produced by the action of ultraviolet light on steroid precursors. Vitamin D is also present in a limited number of foods, and the […]

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